WASHINGTON–Tom Albert drove his loaner Chevrolet Equinox like any other car.
He took it to work during the week, picked up groceries, and loaded up the back with bags of soil at the garden store. When his infant son was fussy, Albert drove the newborn around the block to calm him down.
The normal driving experience ended, however, when it came time to fuel the car. Aboard the silent vehicle, Albert had two filling stations to choose from in the Washington, D.C., area, and the fuel – hydrogen – was anything but typical.
Albert’s no-cost behind-the-wheel experience last spring was part of an ongoing program by General Motors Corp. to see if next-generation vehicles powered by hydrogen can become a reality. Automakers such as GM, Honda Motor Co. and BMW AG are putting several hundred vehicles into suburban garages, in cities and on the highway to see how they fare in day-to-day driving.
“I heard about it on one of the local news stations on my commute in, that they were offering the chance to drive these,” said Albert, an engineer who has always enjoyed tinkering with cars and applied online to participate. “For some reason they picked me.”
Hydrogen fuel cells have been part of the auto industry’s roster of advanced vehicles for years, and several companies are testing small fleets. They gained attention when President George W. Bush announced in 2003 that the government would invest $1.2 billion (U.S.) to encourage their development.
Albert was among a small number of testers participating in “Project Driveway,” a program that allowed customers to provide feedback on the Chevrolet Equinox electric hydrogen fuel cell vehicle.
GM chose participants who live near a fueling station based on their level of interest in fuel cell technology and enthusiasm for new technology. The company covered the cost of the hydrogen fuel, insurance and maintenance.
The Equinox, which holds about 4 kilograms of pressured hydrogen in tanks, generates electricity from a reaction between hydrogen and oxygen and delivers the gasoline equivalent of about 5.4 L/100 km (43 miles per U.S. gallon). While hydrogen is highly flammable, the hydrogen would diffuse into the air in a nonflammable concentration if one of the tanks was punctured or leaked.
The zero-emissions vehicles, which emit droplets of water, still face high hurdles because of a lack of fueling stations and the high cost of developing the cars. Auto companies do not disclose costs, but the vehicles can cost $1 million and beyond because most are hand-built prototypes.
Hydrogen is typically extracted from natural gas, oil and coal, releasing carbon dioxide from those fuels into the atmosphere. Industry officials say using fossil fuels to make hydrogen is a transitional step, with the ultimate goal to produce it widely through renewable energy sources.
Patrick Serfass, director of technology development for the National Hydrogen Association, said using natural gas to produce hydrogen emits half the amount of overall emissions compared with a conventional gasoline-fueled vehicle.
The test drives are being held while consumers are paying close to $4 for a U.S. gallon of gasoline, offering a window into what petroleum-free driving might look like.
The industry estimates hydrogen can be produced for $3 a U.S. gallon of gasoline equivalent with current technology, while the government’s target is for the fuel to be available at $1.50 per U.S. gallon of gasoline equivalent by 2010.
In addition to the GM program, Honda is planning to lease about 200 FCX Clarity hydrogen fuel cells to customers in California. One of the first customers is actress Jamie Lee Curtis.
The three-year leases cost $600 a month, which includes maintenance and collision coverage. The car has a range of about 434 kilometres per tank. Honda said it received 50,000 applications through its Web site but could only consider those living near stations in three southern California cities.
“You’re not sacrificing anything, and actually for me it’s an enhanced driving experience,” said Jon Spallino, a Redondo Beach, Calif., businessman who previously drove an older version of the FCX and will lease the Clarity.
“I think that’s a misconception people have, that you’re puttering around in an underpowered cramped little soapbox,” he said.
BMW has placed some of its Hydrogen 7 Series sedans in the hands of Hollywood celebrities and others for tests.
The Hydrogen 7 has an internal combustion engine that can run on gasoline or liquid hydrogen, an advantage because of the lack of hydrogen fueling stations. It can travel about 209 kilometres on hydrogen and shift to a gasoline-powered engine, with a range of 482 km.
“It’s allowed people to live with these vehicles in a way that they don’t have to feel restricted in the distances they can travel or where they can go,” said BMW spokesman Dave Buchko.
Automakers say the tests show the cars can perform like a conventional vehicle, bolstering their argument that a network of fueling stations are needed. There are 61 operational hydrogen fueling stations in the United States, according to the National Hydrogen Association, and nearly half are located in California.
A panel with the National Academies of Science recently concluded the U.S. would need to invest $200 billion, including $55 billion in government funding, between 2008 and 2023 to make the vehicles viable.
The report estimated that the maximum number of hydrogen vehicles on the roads by 2020 would be 2 million, a tiny fraction of the nation’s fleet.
Albert said after more than 3,700 km and two months in the Equinox, he sees the potential. He used the vehicle like any other and said the only limitations were the lack of fueling stations and the vehicle’s 321-km range.
He offered plenty of suggestions to GM’s team, even feedback from his cranky baby. Albert’s first child, Tyler, was born Feb. 4, and the family jokingly called him the “first hydrogen baby.”
“As I was putting him in the car, I was wondering, ‘Is it the engine noise that quiets the baby or the road noise?’ We had no idea,” Albert said. After a short drive, Tyler’s cries subsided, offering some insight for future dads.
“We found out it’s probably the road noise and the motion,” Albert said with a smile. “It didn’t have much to do with the engine noise since there’s no internal combustion engine.”